# 14 2: Reaction Rates Chemistry LibreTexts

Rate of return represents the percentage net gain or loss of an investment’s initial cost over a period of time. The rate of return calculates the percentage change from the beginning to the end of a specified period. Calculating the Rate Investors can also use it to compare the investment’s performance with past periods or returns from other investments. A Rate of Return (ROR) is the gain or loss of an investment over a certain period of time.

### How to calculate the rate of change?

Rate of change problems can generally be approached using the formula R = D/T, or rate of change equals the distance traveled divided by the time it takes to do so.

Similar to the simple rate of return, any gains made during the holding period of this investment should be included in the formula. The discounted cash flow (DCF) formula takes projected future cash flows and reduces them for each year by applying a discount rate. The % discount rate represents the time value of money of capital that is tied up in a project, and reflects the minimum rate of return needed to produce an acceptable investment result for a given level of risk. The remaining value of the discounted cash flows is called net present value. If this situation was to be calculated from the perspective of the bank issuing the loan to the borrower, C7 would instead be a positive and C6 would be the negative number.

## What is the RATE Function?

This is because the loan would be gaining C7 on a monthly basis (cash inflow of monthly payments). It would also be losing the initial loan amount, thus causing C6 to be the negative number instead. For example, when we say that we are driving at a speed of [latex]68[/latex] miles per hour we mean that we travel [latex]68[/latex] miles in [latex]1[/latex] hour. We would write this rate as [latex]68[/latex] miles/hour (read [latex]68[/latex] miles per hour). Note that when no number is written before a unit, it is assumed to be [latex]1[/latex].

Chemical reactions never happen instantaneously, they take time to transform reactant into product. Knowing the rate at which a reaction occurs can be extremely useful in understanding how a reaction happens. The rate of reaction is defined as the relationship between the change in concentration of the reactant and the change in time. It can also be defined as the change in product over change in time, but is generally stated in terms of the reactant.

## Sciencing_Icons_Linear Equations Linear Equations

Therefore, Adam realized a 35% return on his shares over the two-year period. However, the interest payments represent a return of capital each year. The IRR calculation would take these interim cashflows into consideration. This investor would have realized a \$50 capital gain and \$150 (5 x \$30) in interest payments, for total profits of \$200. Against a \$1000 purchase price, the investor has earned 20%.

Many different things are simultaneously happening in our world, each with its own rate. We have laws to limit how fast you can drive a car, expectations on how long it will take to fill the bathtub, and impatience when the flow of people in the queue is slower than expected. Everybody thinks about rates every day, whether they realize it or not. Solution
To compare the prices, we first find the unit price for each type of detergent. The next video shows more examples of how to find rates and unit rates. When writing a fraction as a rate, we put the first given amount with its units in the numerator and the second amount with its units in the denominator.

## The Rate of Reaction Formula

However, this equation is not very useful if one is just looking at a graph and does not know the rate constant or the values of n and o. Sven’s car gets [latex]32.5[/latex] miles/gallon, or [latex]32.5[/latex] mpg. For a financial analyst, the RATE function can be useful to calculate the interest rate on zero coupon bonds. Return can mean different things to different people, and it’s important to know the context of the situation to understand what they mean. In addition to the above methods for measuring returns, there are several other types of formulas.

• After holding them for two years, Adam decides to sell all 10 shares of Company A at an ex-dividend price of \$25.
• The name for that perfect (black) line is a tangent line because it passes tangent to (3, 4.3) but does not cross the data.
• We would write this rate as [latex]68[/latex] miles/hour (read [latex]68[/latex] miles per hour).
• Most investors measure returns on an annualized basis, which facilitate the comparison of how different investments are performing.
• Knowing the rate at which a reaction occurs can be extremely useful in understanding how a reaction happens.

Rate of return can be measured over any time period as well as sub-periods. For example, it can be calculated for a one-year period, and it could be calculated for each month or quarter within that period. When tracking the rate of return for shorter periods, such as months, these rates of return can be compounded to reach an annualized return. Since all rates describe a process occurring over some amount of time, the rate of a chemical reaction is in units of (change in reactant or product)/(time elapsed). If we measure the amount of a chemical in grams, and the time in seconds, the rate has units of grams/second, or g/s.

## Interpreting a Kinetics Graph

When rates are simplified, the units remain in the numerator and denominator. Using the data in the following table, calculate the reaction rate of \(SO_2(g)\) with \(O_2(g)\) to give \(SO_3(g)\). Write expressions for the reaction rate in terms of the rate https://accounting-services.net/bookkeeping-cincinnati/ of change of the concentration of each species. The initial concentration is 9.85 mol/L, and the reactants are gone at time 9.4 seconds. The rate of reaction is used to know how long a mixture need to sit before the next step of an experiment can happen.

### How do you calculate rate per 1000?

How to calculate cost per thousand. To calculate your CPM rate, you need to take the total cost of your online advertising divided by the total number of impressions and times 1000. For example, if your ad campaign costs you \$500 for 100 000 impressions, your CPM would be \$5.

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